Wastewater needs to be treated first, before releasing same into water bodies. Unfortunately, in the last many years, wastewater has caused increased levels of water pollution that damaged flora and fauna of the water bodies to a large extent. To reduce water pollution, the sewage water treatment plants tend to use various methods of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater.
Several methods help in removing the suspended particles from the water. One of the most popular methods is coagulation and flocculation. For the water treatment plants, operators can choose the right jar test apparatus manufacturers in India for jar testing.
What is coagulation/flocculation?
Flocculation is the process in which the suspended particles create flocs or clots on the water surface. These clots can be removed efficiently. In general terms, both flocculation and coagulation are similar processes. Only that in flocculation stimulation is used to create flocs using paddles. Whereas in coagulation, chemical coagulants are used to make clots of suspended particles.
The suspended particles tend to have a negative charge on them. It causes them to float on the surface and not settle in the water. In flocculation/coagulation, coagulants are added to the water, which adds a positive charge to the negative particles. It makes them neutral, and thus, makes them repel from water particles. This repelling nature will make the particles stick together and create flocs that can be skimmed off.
There are several types of flocculants used in water treatment:
• Aluminium sulfate or alum
• Ferrous sulfate
• Ferric sulfate
• Ferric chloride
• Magnesium carbonate
• Hydrated lime
Coagulation and flocculation are one step in the entire water treatment process. The treatment process also includes filtration, clarification, and sanitization.
What is jar testing?
In the process of water treatment, coagulation and flocculation are some of the most crucial parts. First, however, the operators should have a clear idea of how much coagulant to activate the process.
Wastewater quality tends to vary, and thus the coagulant to be used will differ as well. It is where jar testing becomes crucial.
In jar testing, the operators can determine the number of chemicals required for the coagulation process to initiate. Thus, it helps in improving the water plant’s performance. However, without using the right amount of chemicals, the entire process will fall short of achieving the goal.
Jar testing apparatus
For jar testing, there is special apparatus, which the plants use for testing the coagulants. The testing apparatus helps in creating a small-scale water treatment plant-like environment. It helps test the amount of coagulant to be used in the water volume of a certain type. Testing apparatus by jar test apparatus exporter have jars which can be filled with wastewater. Also, there are small paddles to mix the water slowly to activate coagulation.
Proper coagulation and flocculation process help in improving:
– High-quality effluent
– Better downstream operation
– Better clarification and filtration performance
Sewage water treatment is a long process, and coagulation is only a part of it. But, to enhance the entire process and ensure that there is enhanced efficiency, jar testing is highly important. It helps in using the right amount of coagulants and chemicals to give the right results.